Much of the credit for Development of Application Development goes to companies like Microsoft Corporation, Apple, Google that led the way with its proprietary and open source software’s which made designing a breeze. The above software’s were all proprietary solutions and users could not access the source code and modify the software on their own. GIMP, the open source designing software solved this problem to a great extent but it was with the emergence of Android as a mobile operating system that actually lowered the cost of smartphones as Windows based Communicator mobiles were still very costly. Windows followed suit with its free and paid applications thereafter and its own family of low-cost windows phones for the bottom of the pyramid.
In the DOS era, when users had to remember all sorts of commands or refer to manuals in order to know what command to type in the command prompt to elicit the desired response from the computer. In the 386, 486 processor era, graphic design was really not possible with ease and painters had to paint one design on paper and then design another in order to get it right. Forget about Application Development, even smartphones had not been manufactured by then and only a select few in the western world could own mobile phones.
Graphic design as a discipline came on to surface with the advent of computers and especially after Windows 95 came on the scene that offered users a graphical user interface wherein users could point and click and give commands to computers to perform simple and complex tasks. This brought in a revolution as marketers used the functionality offered by Windows and leveraged the power of the internet to do viral marketing so that their message could reach the inbox of users in one shot. Windows later on incorporated these functionalities in Vista and windows 8.1
Low cost windows phones became a great learning tool and instructional design as a discipline took birth wherein students could learn from a remote location and teachers from English speaking developing countries could solve the problem of students in the developed world. The more time students spent on their hand-held devices, the higher the chances of students sticking on to the computer screens, finishing lessons, offering feedback and ordering more lessons and greater opportunity for advertisers to undertake nuclear marketing by targeting the young ones in the family.